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Chalmers et al. provide evidence in multiple cohorts of patients with systemic lupus erythematous that CD6 and its ligand, activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM), interact within the kidney to contribute to lupus nephritis. Image credit: Phoi Tiet.
The bone marrow (BM) microenvironment regulates acute myeloid leukemia (AML) initiation, proliferation and chemotherapy resistance. Following cancer cell death, a growing body of evidence suggests an important role for remaining apoptotic debris in regulating the immunologic response to, and growth of, solid tumors. Here we investigated the role of macrophage LC3-associated phagocytosis (LAP) within the BM microenvironment of AML. Depletion of BM macrophages increased AML growth in-vivo. We showed that LAP is the predominate method of BM macrophage phagocytosis of dead and dying cells in the AML microenvironment. Targeted inhibition of LAP led to accumulation of apoptotic cells (AC) and apoptotic bodies (AB) resulting in accelerated leukemia growth. Mechanistically, LAP of AMLderived-AB by BM macrophages, resulted in STING pathway activation. We identified that AML derived mitochondrial damage associated molecular patterns were processed by BM macrophages via LAP. Moreover, depletion of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in AML derived-AB showed that it is this mtDNA which was responsible for the induction of STING signalling in BM macrophages. Phenotypically we found that STING activation suppressed AML growth through a mechanism related to increased phagocytosis. In summary, we report that macrophage LAP of apoptotic debris in the AML BM microenvironment suppressed tumor growth.
Jamie A. Moore, Jayna J. Mistry, Charlotte Hellmich, Rebecca H. Horton, Edyta E. Wojtowicz, Aisha Jibril, Matthew Jefferson, Thomas Wileman, Naiara Beraza, Kristian M. Bowles, Stuart A. Rushworth
Obstructive arterial diseases including supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS), atherosclerosis and restenosis share two important features: an abnormal or disrupted elastic lamellae structure and excessive smooth muscle cells (SMCs). However, the relationship between these pathological features is poorly delineated. SVAS is caused by heterozygous loss-of-function, hypomorphic or deletion mutations in the elastin gene ELN, and SVAS patients and elastin mutant mice display increased arterial wall cellularity and luminal obstructions. Pharmacological treatments for SVAS are lacking as underlying pathobiology is inadequately defined. Herein, using human aortic vascular cells, mouse models as well as aortic samples and SMCs derived from induced pluripotent stem cells of ELN-deficient patients, we demonstrated that elastin insufficiency induced epigenetic changes, upregulating the Notch pathway in SMCs. Specifically, reduced elastin increased levels of γ-secretase, activated NOTCH3 intracellular domain and downstream genes. Notch3 deletion or pharmacological inhibition of γ-secretase attenuated aortic hypermuscularization and stenosis in Eln(-/-) mutants. Eln(-/-) mice expressed higher levels of Notch ligand JAGGED1 (JAG1) in aortic SMCs and endothelial cells (ECs). Finally, Jag1 deletion in SMCs, but not ECs, mitigated the hypermuscular and stenotic phenotype in the aorta of Eln(-/-) mice. Our findings reveal that NOTCH3 pathway upregulation induced pathological aortic SMC accumulation during elastin insufficiency and provide potential therapeutic targets for SVAS.
Jui M. Dave, Raja Chakraborty, Aglaia Ntokou, Junichi Saito, Fatima Z. Saddouk, Zhonghui Feng, Ashish Misra, George Tellides, Robert K. Riemer, Zsolt Urban, Caroline Kinnear, James Ellis, Seema Mital, Robert Mecham, Kathleen A. Martin, Daniel M. Greif
BACKGROUND. Presbyosmia, or aging related olfactory loss, occurs in a majority of humans over age 65 years, yet remains poorly understood, with no specific treatment options. The olfactory epithelium (OE) is the peripheral organ for olfaction, and is subject to acquired damage, suggesting a likely site of pathology in aging. Adult stem cells reconstitute the neuroepithelium in response to cell loss under normal conditions. In aged OE, patches of respiratory-like metaplasia have been observed histologically, consistent with a failure in normal neuroepithelial homeostasis. METHODS. Accordingly, we have focused on identifying cellular and molecular changes in presbyosmic OE. The study combined psychophysical testing with olfactory mucosa biopsy analysis, single cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq), and culture studies. RESULTS. We identified evidence for inflammation-associated changes in the OE stem cells of presbyosmic patients. The presbyosmic basal stem cells exhibited increased expression of genes involved in response to cytokines or stress, or the regulation of proliferation and differentiation. Using a culture model, cytokine exposure drove increased TP63, a transcription factor acting to prevent OE stem cell differentiation. CONCLUSIONS. Our data suggest aging-related inflammatory changes in OE stem cells may contribute to presbyosmia, via the disruption of normal epithelial homeostasis. OE stem cells may represent a therapeutic target for restoration of olfaction. TRIAL REGISTRATION. Not applicable FUNDING. National Institutes of Health grants DC018371 (BJG), NS121067 (EAM), DC016224 (HM);Office of Physician-Scientist Development, Burroughs-Wellcome Fund Research Fellowship for Medical Students Award, Duke University School of Medicine (AO).
Allison D. Oliva, Rupali Gupta, Khalil Issa, Ralph Abi Hachem, David W. Jang, Sebastian A. Wellford, E. Ashley Moseman, Hiroaki Matsunami, Bradley J. Goldstein
Mutations in TAB2 (transforming growth factor β activated kinase 1 binding protein 2) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of dilated cardiomyopathy and/or congenital heart disease in humans, but the underlying mechanisms are currently unknown. Here we identified an indispensable role for TAB2 in regulating myocardial homeostasis and remodeling by suppressing RIPK1 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 1) activation and RIPK1-dependent apoptosis and necroptosis. Cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Tab2 in mice triggered dilated cardiomyopathy with massive apoptotic and necroptotic cell death. Moreover, Tab2-deficient mice were also predisposed to myocardial injury and adverse remodeling following pathological stress. In cardiomyocytes, deletion of TAB2, but not its close homologue TAB3, promoted TNFα-induced apoptosis and necroptosis, which was rescued by forced activation of TAK1 or inhibition of RIPK1 kinase activity. Mechanistically, TAB2 critically mediates RIPK1 phosphorylation at Ser321 via a TAK1-dependent mechanism, which prevents RIPK1 kinase activation and the formation of RIPK1-FADD-caspase-8 apoptotic complex or RIPK1-RIPK3 necroptotic complex. Strikingly, genetic inactivation of RIPK1 with Ripk1-K45A knock-in effectively rescued cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in Tab2-deficient mice. Together, these data demonstrate that TAB2 is a key regulator of myocardial homeostasis and remodeling by suppressing RIPK1-dependent apoptosis and necroptosis. Our results also suggest that targeting RIPK1-mediated cell death signaling may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for TAB2 deficiency-induced dilated cardiomyopathy.
Haifeng Yin, Xiaoyun Guo, Yi Chen, Yachang Zeng, Xiaoliang Mo, Siqi Hong, Hui He, Jing Li, Rachel Steinmetz, Qinghang Liu
BACKGROUND. Curative gene therapies for sickle cell disease (SCD) are currently undergoing clinical evaluation. The occurrence of myeloid malignancies in these trials has prompted safety concerns. Individuals with SCD are predisposed to myeloid malignancies, but the underlying causes remain undefined. Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) is a pre-malignant condition that also confers significant predisposition to myeloid cancers. While it has been speculated that CH may play a role in SCD-associated cancer predisposition, limited data addressing this issue have been reported. METHODS. Here, we leveraged 74,190 whole genome sequences to robustly study CH in SCD. Somatic mutation calling methods were used to assess CH in all samples and comparisons between individuals with and without SCD were performed. RESULTS. While we had sufficient power to detect a greater than 2-fold increased rate of CH, we found no detectable variation in rate or clone properties between individuals affected by SCD and controls. The rate of CH in individuals with SCD was unaltered by hydroxyurea use. CONCLUSIONS. We did not observe an increased risk for acquiring detectable CH in SCD, at least as measured by whole genome sequencing. These results should help guide ongoing efforts and further studies that seek to better define the risk factors underlying myeloid malignancy predisposition in SCD and help ensure that curative therapies can be more safely applied.FUNDING. Funding was provided by the New York Stem Cell Foundation and National Institutes of Health. The funders had no role in study design or reporting.
L. Alexander Liggett, Liam D. Cato, Joshua S. Weinstock, Yingze Zhang, S. Mehdi Nouraie, Mark T. Gladwin, Melanie E. Garrett, Allison Ashley-Koch, Marilyn Telen, Brian Custer, Shannon Kelly, Carla Dinardo, Ester C. Sabino, Paula Loureiro, Anna Carneiro-Proietti, Cláudia Maximo, Alexander P. Reiner, Gonçalo R. Abecasis, David A. Williams, Pradeep Natarajan, Alexander G. Bick, Vijay G. Sankaran
JCI This Month is a digest of the research, reviews, and other features published each month.
Animals, plants, and bacteria all display behavioral patterns that coincide with Earth’s light and dark cycles. These oscillating behaviors are the manifestation of the molecular circadian clock, a highly conserved network that maintains a near 24-hour rhythm even in the absence of light. In mammals, light signals are transmitted via the superchiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus to synchronize peripheral clocks and coordinate physiological functions with the organism’s active period. This collection of reviews, curated by Amita Sehgal, considers the critical role of the circadian system in human health. Technology, work, and social obligations can disrupt optimal sleep and wake schedules, leaving humans vulnerable to diseases affecting the heart, brain, metabolism, and more. Sleep disorders as well as normal variations in human chronotype may exacerbate circadian disruptions, with profound consequences. These reviews emphasize that ongoing efforts to understand the complexities of human circadian rhythm will be essential for developing chronotherapies and other circadian-based interventions.